Oceanic islands are natural laboratories for investigating species diversity and richness patterns. Changes in abiotic parameters may induce shifts in marine biota. Seaweeds are recognized as bioindicators, though those from remote tropical islands have been rarely studied. This study updates the diversity, richness and distribution of macroalgae from Trindade, a Brazilian volcanic island located 1140 km off the coast. Biotic data, obtained in a global database and in situ and compiled in a new records list, were associated with abiotic parameters. Conservation and ecological issues were discussed in the context of the observed greater richness, expansion of the distributional range and low endemism. A total of 141 species were identified, including 60 new records and 20 taxa of filamentous cyanobacteria. The greater richness, including potential cryptogenic species, may primarily be associated with past incomplete samplings, current new techniques and combined taxonomical methods, including molecular analysis for cryptic species. However, on the macroscale, this study provides information for the re-evaluation of aspects of endemism, connections and biogeographical distribution shifts of seaweed assemblages, considering environmental changes. In addition, this updated checklist establishes a baseline for further comparative studies, reinforcing the hypothesis that biogeographical isolation can be disrupted by meteorological and oceanographic shifts, altering dispersal patterns and resulting in higher ecosystems connectivity.