During an EC-funded research carried out in the Mediterranean Sea deep-water fish (600-4000 m) were collected in the Balearic Sea as well as the western and eastern Ionian Sea. Caelorhynchusmediterraneus is a new record for the Balearic Sea, Cyclothone braueri, Hygophum benoiti, Paralepis speciosa, Chalinura mediterranea, Coryphaenoides guentheri, C. mediterraneus, Lepidion lepidion and Cataetyx laticeps for the western Ionian Sea, and Polyacanthonotus rissoanus, C. guentheri, C. mediterraneus, L. lepidion and C. laticeps for the eastern Ionian Sea. The bathymetric distribution of other species has been updated. Species richness decreased with depth in the three surveyed areas, showing a significant shift below 1500 m. At depths greater than 1000 m macrourid and morid species were dominant except in the Balearic Sea, where Alepocephalus rostratus was found to be very abundant as deep as 1500 m. At depths greater than 1500 m the dominant species were Bathypterois mediterraneus, C. mediterranea and C. guentheri. The results of this research confirm the scarcity of deep fish fauna in the Mediterranean compared to the Atlantic. For the greatest depths are concerned, the faunistic difference between the western and eastern Mediterranean seems to be most probably due to a lesser number of investigations on the eastern side rather than any real paucity of ichthyofauna.