The state of exploitation of the Nephrops norvegicus fisheries in different areas in the Mediterranean Sea is examined for the first time. Length cohort analysis (LCA) by sex has been applied for each area, and Y/R curves are presented to show the current status of the stocks under the steady-state assumption. A simulation of short and long-term effects of changes in fishing effort levels is presented. Norway lobster populations in the Mediterranean share the same biological features, but different exploitation patterns have been observed in several areas. Considering current exploitation levels, certain of the stocks analysed appear to be slightly growth-overexploited, while others seem to be placed near the optimum level of exploitation. For comparison purposes, the study areas can be classified as follows: fully exploited: Catalan Sea (Spain), Adriatic Sea and Tyrrhenian Sea (Italy); moderately exploited: Ligurian Sea (Italy) and Euboikos Gulf (Greece); and lightly exploited: Atlantic (Portugal). The stock in the Alboran Sea (Spain) is a special case and is therefore discussed separately.