Macrobenthic polychaete distributions were studied along the soft-bottoms of the Ensenada de San Simón (Galicia, NW Spain). Results suggest that the distribution and abundance of polychaetes in the inlet were highly dependent on depth, sediment characteristics (grain size, organic matter and calcium carbonate content) and bottom water temperature. In the inner area of the inlet, intertidal bottoms colonised by the seagrasses Zostera marina and Z. noltii were dominated by spionids and capitellids, and showed low species number and diversity. Shallow muddy bottoms of central areas were mostly dominated by ampharetids, terebellids and cirratullids. These families along with paraonids, maldanids and syllids were the most abundant families in the deeper subtidal muddy bottoms at the mouth of the inlet. These sediments also showed the highest number of species, diversity and density of individuals.