The present study describes the anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) fishery, the fleet involved in its exploitation, and the basic biological parameters, to provide more accurate information on the exploitation rate of the North Western Mediterranean stocks. We have compiled studies that deal with its assessment and have compared results from different methodologies. Anchovy biomass has been estimated by acoustics and egg production methods, both being direct methods but with a lack of fisheries information that integrates the exploitation variable on the anchovy resource (fishing mortality). We have analyzed the landings of six major ports in the NW Mediterranean Sea (Castelló, Barcelona, Port de la Selva, Sète, Savona and Sestri-Levante) obtained length frequencies and applied a Length Cohort Analysis so that preliminary results are given in order to state the exploitation rate. Results show no growth overexploitation but in order to prevent recruitment overfishing, seasonal closures during autumm and winter would be advisable. These would take into account the first maturity size that appears larger than catch’s mean sizes in order to ensure at least one spawning season for most of the individuals.