This paper is a review on the anchovy early life history in the western Mediterranean. There is evidence of latitudinal differences in the duration of the spawning period associated with regional temperature variations. The main spawning areas of the anchovy are located in the Gulf of Lyons and at the shelf surrounding the Ebro river delta. The extensions of spawning grounds seem to be linked to the size of the shelf and to the degree of hydrographic enriching-processes. Punctual studies on egg and larval ecology have been made mainly in the areas of the main spawning grounds, reporting preliminary results on growth, feeding, condition and mortality estimates. Biomass estimation by the Daily Egg Production Method (DEPM) has also been applied at the northern region.